Things to know about Somalia
Where is Somalia? Somalia’s economic structure, geographical features everything about Somalia
Somalia, Soomaaliya; Arabic: الصومال), officially the Federal Republic of Somalia (Somali: Jamhuuriyadda Federaalka Soomaaliya, Arabic: جمهورية الصومال الفيدرالية Jumhūriyyat aṣ-Ṣūmāl al-fidraliyyah, formerly the communist Democratic Republic of East Somalia) and East Somalia It is a country located in the geographical region called the Horn of Africa. Since the start of the Somali Civil War in 1991, most parts of the state have had no central government control. The internationally recognized Transitional Federal Government governs only a small part of the country.[
Somalia is located at the easternmost tip of Africa, bordered by Djibouti to the northwest, Kenya to the southwest, the Gulf of Aden and Yemen to the north, the Indian Ocean to the east, and Ethiopia to the west. It has the longest coastline on the continent and its terrain consists mainly of plateaus, plains and plateaus. It has a year-round arid climate with periodic monsoon winds and irregular precipitation.
In ancient times, Somalia was an important trading region and, according to many scholars, is among the most likely settlements of the legendary ancient Kingdom of Punt. During the Middle Ages, many powerful Somali empires dominated regional trade, some of them; Ajuran Empire, Adal Sultanate, Warsangali Sultanate and Gobroon Dynasty. Somalia has been part of the Ottoman Empire for a long time. Towards the end of the 19th century, the Ottoman dominance in the region weakened. With the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869, the British occupied the countries of the region in order to ensure the safety of the road from the Red Sea to the Gulf of Aden. The British, who occupied the gulf coastline of the country, left the Southern regions to the Italians. British Somalia existed from 1887 to 1960, and Italian Somalia from 1889 to 1960.
In the late nineteenth century, the British and Italians gained control of the coastal areas, and British Somalia and Italian Somalia were formed. Founded by Mohammed Abdullah Hassan, the Dervish State repulsed the British Empire to the coastal areas four times, but in 1920 they were defeated by British air power. In 1927, Italy gained complete dominance over all the regions that were subordinate to it. This occupation of Italy lasted until 1941 when the region came under British military rule. In 1960, the independent Republic of Somalia was established, covering the north and south. Mohamed Siad Barre seized power in 1969 and established the Somali Democratic Republic. Siad Barre; He maintained his regime for twenty-two years, promoting competition between clans, banning opposition parties, suppressing civil society, and destroying all independent institutions. With the new administration, arrests and torture increased in the country, newspapers (only one newspaper was officially allowed), radio and television were banned, investment in the military was increased, and a secret team called the National Security Service was formed to detect and block dissidents. The uprisings of the people were prevented by military pressure. The country was in need of foreign aid, especially during the 1980s. There were few resources to invest in the public sphere such as education, health, transport or infrastructure. No elections are held for any political position; All those who should have been elected were appointed by Barre. In 1991, the Somali Civil War broke out and the Barre government fell.