History of Cheese… Farmers of the Neolithic Age began producing cheese in the Fertile Crescent (the region where the Western and Middle Eastern civilizations were born) in 8000 BC.
The rise of agriculture led to domestication of sheep and goats, whose milk was used. However, milk waiting for a few hours was starting to sour.
Lactic acids caused the protein to clot. Discovering this interesting change, the farmers started to eat the remaining yellowish lumps by draining the remaining liquid.
These lumps became the building block of cheese and provided the advantage of survival to the people living in the Neolithic Age. Milk was rich in protein, fat and minerals.
But at the same time, it contained a lot of lactose, which was difficult to digest. On the other hand, while the cheese had much lower lactose ratios, it provided all the benefits of milk. In addition, since it is easy to maintain, essential nutrients could be consumed by families in winter or when there was scarcity.
Cheese and butter in the year 7000 with BC found pottery shards were discovered in Turkey.
At the end of the Bronze Age, cheese was one of the products in the Mediterranean trade. In Mesopotamia, which is a densely populated region, it was an indispensable part of the kitchen and religious life.
Some of his earliest known writings list the types and number of cheeses used for religious rituals by different communities in Mesapotamia.
records kept by the civilization near Turkey and cheese also makes reference to the yeast. The rennet produced in the stomachs of some mammals can speed up and control coagulation.
Eventually this enormous cheese making tool spread around the world, making it possible to make a wide variety and harder cheeses. Over time, different cultures applied their tastes to cheese making.
Nomadic Mongolians used the milk of tibetan cattle (yak) to make hard, sun-dried Byaslag cheese. The Egyptians liked cheeses made from goat milk, they drained whey with cane straws.
In South Asia, it was coagulated with various food acids such as cheese, milk, lemon juice, vinegar or yogurt and allowed to dry. This soft cheese can be added to curry and sauces or fried quickly.
The Greeks produced salted feta, similar to pecorino romano. Sicilians produced grilled cheese and this cheese was used frequently in Mediterranean cuisine.
The “dry cheese” provided the food needs of five hundred thousand soldiers who protected the borders of the Roman Empire.
In monasteries scattered all over Europe, priests worked experimentally to make cheese using different kinds of milk. Parmesan, roquefort, munster and a few Swiss-made cheeses have been refined and perfected by clergy.
Especially in the Alps, cheese making was successful because the milk of many cows was used.
At the end of the 14th century, Alpine cheese produced in the Gruyere region of Switzerland was so profitable that a neighboring state that wanted to take over the growing cheese trade invaded Gruyere.
Cheese remained popular throughout the Renaissance, and machines undertook cheese production after the Industrial Revolution.
Today, approximately twenty two billion kilograms of cheese are produced annually in the world, shipped and consumed all over the world.
However, ten thousand years after its invention, local farms imitate their Neolithic ancestors, and continue to make one of the oldest and favorite foods of humanity.