This year’s scientific research has shed light on previously poorly understood phenomena.
CNN, one of the leading media organizations in the US, wrote about 6 events that investigators solved the mystery of this year.
Matriarchal societies existed in the Copper Age
In a study published in July, scientists found evidence of a possible matriarchal society in ancient Europe.
An ostentatious Copper Age cemetery unearthed in southwestern Spain in 2008 turns out to have belonged to a woman, not a young male ruler as previously assumed.
The study, conducted by researchers from the University of Seville and the University of Vienna, showed that women held leadership positions in Europe’s Copper Age society between 2900 and 2650 BC.
The secret to the durability of ancient Roman marble
It turns out that the material that gives the marble used in ancient Rome its durability is a white substance called “lime chips”.
In the study, the results of which the researchers shared in January, 2,000-year-old marble remains from the Roman Empire in the commune of Privermo in the Lazio region of Italy were examined. It was revealed that the fragments in question enabled the cracks in the marble to close spontaneously over time.
The original appearance of Ötzi the Iceman
Information about the appearance of Ötzi, the iceman found in 1991 in the glaciers of the Ötztal Alps on the Austrian-Italian border, changed with the publication of a study in August.
While scientists have depicted Ötzi as a pale-skinned man with hair and a beard, DNA analysis in the latest study showed that the iceman was actually dark-skinned and bald.
Owner of 20,000-year-old necklace revealed
Researchers have detected human DNA in a pendant from the chipped stone age in Siberia.
Scientists used the new method of extracting DNA from a prehistoric object for the first time in this study.
The study, published in May, found that the pendant found in the Denisova cave in the Altai Mountains was a deer tusk, about 2 centimeters long, with a hole drilled in it for use as a necklace.
The mystery of ancient parchment
More than 1,000 precious scrolls from the ancient Roman city of Herculaneum were burned to ashes when Mount Vesuvius erupted nearly 2,000 years ago.
But with the help of artificial intelligence, Luke Farritor, a computer science student at the University of Nebraska in the US, was able to read a word from the scroll remains.
Farritor, who participated in a contest launched by the University of Kentucky, won $40,000 for deciphering the Greek word “porphyras”, which means “purple” in the parchment relic.
Scientists have determined which substances and mixtures the ancient Egyptians used to embalm the dead.
Researchers analyzing the remains found in mummification workshops in Egypt’s historic Saqqa region found that mummification processes used plant oils such as juniper, cypress and cedar, as well as resins from pistachio trees, animal fats and beeswax.
According to scientists, the mixtures of these ingredients were prepared to prevent the risk of infection and decomposition, in addition to lubricating the corpses and reducing bad odors.