EOKA Massacres, Bloody Christmas 58 Years Later

8 mins read
Bloody Christmas 58 Years Later

EOKA Massacres, Bloody Christmas 58 Years Later

The Republic of Cyprus was established as an independent state on 16 August 1960, with the constitution prepared in the negotiations between Greece, Turkey and the United Kingdom in Zurich, Switzerland. Nationalist elites in the two communities continued to maintain clandestine armed formations to fight their ultimate goals of enosis and partition.

In this direction, while the Turkish Resistance Organization continued its activities in secret in the Turkish society, some of the former EOKA fighters in the Greek community formed the Akritas organization under the leadership of the Minister of Interior Polikarpos Yorgacis. In 1961, Makarios began to argue that Cyprus could not be governed by the current constitution, and in November 1963 proposed a thirteen-point amendment to the constitution.

Bloody Christmas 58 Years LaterIn order for the Turkish Cypriot community to accept these changes, Greek Cypriot fanatics continued their newspaper publications throughout December, which increased the tension on the island within the framework of the principles called the Akritas Plan.

The final stage of the Akritas Plan, created by the Greek Cypriot leadership, was the adoption of constitutional amendment proposals by using arms to the Turkish Cypriots. Makarios met with the commander of the Akritas organization and the Greek regiment a few days before presenting the change proposals and asked about the progress of the plan preparations. On December 31, 1963, the Greek regiment would be changed, and during this time, weapons reinforcement would take place for the Akritas organization from Greece. According to Niyazi Kızılyürek, “there are doubts” that this date has been determined as 21 December by the Greek Cypriot leadership, although a conflict is expected at some point.

Makarios thought that the conflicts would not start in 1963 because of the time it would take to negotiate the proposals. In another meeting, General Çuvelekis, who was at the head of the Greek regiment, stated that the date they would be ready for the reaction of the Turks was March 1964, and that the distribution of the weapons and the training of the organization’s militants should be done after the arrival of the weapons at the beginning of the year. However, Makarios said at the meeting that this date was too late. Using Rauf Denktaş’s statement in 1967 (“Were you able to control all your men? There was no control, especially us.”) as a basis, Kızılyürek said that the outbreak of events on December 21 may have occurred earlier than planned, and that this was the result of the militants in the Akritas organization and TMT. states that it may have occurred out of control.

The Republic of Cyprus was established as an independent state on 16 August 1960, with the constitution prepared in the negotiations between Greece, Turkey and the United Kingdom in Zurich, Switzerland. Nationalist elites in the two communities continued to maintain clandestine armed formations to fight their ultimate goals of enosis and partition.

Beginning of events

In this direction, while the Turkish Resistance Organization continued its activities in secret in the Turkish society, some of the former EOKA fighters in the Greek community formed the Akritas organization under the leadership of the Minister of Interior Polikarpos Yorgacis. In 1961, Makarios began to argue that Cyprus could not be governed by the current constitution, and in November 1963 proposed a thirteen-point amendment to the constitution.

In order for the Turkish Cypriot community to accept these changes, Greek Cypriot fanatics continued their newspaper publications throughout December, which increased the tension on the island within the framework of the principles called the Akritas Plan.

The final stage of the Akritas Plan, created by the Greek Cypriot leadership, was the adoption of constitutional amendment proposals by using arms to the Turkish Cypriots. Makarios met with the commander of the Akritas organization and the Greek regiment a few days before presenting the change proposals and asked about the progress of the plan preparations. On December 31, 1963, the Greek regiment would be changed, and during this time, weapons reinforcement would take place for the Akritas organization from Greece. According to Niyazi Kızılyürek, “there are doubts” that this date has been determined as 21 December by the Greek Cypriot leadership, although a conflict is expected at some point.

Makarios thought that the conflicts would not start in 1963 because of the time it would take to negotiate the proposals. In another meeting, General Çuvelekis, who was at the head of the Greek regiment, stated that the date they would be ready for the reaction of the Turks was March 1964, and that the distribution of the weapons and the training of the organization’s militants should be done after the arrival of the weapons at the beginning of the year. However, Makarios said at the meeting that this date was too late. Using Rauf Denktaş’s statement in 1967 (“Were you able to control all your men? There was no control, especially us.”) as a basis, Kızılyürek said that the outbreak of events on December 21 may have occurred earlier than planned, and that this was the result of the militants in the Akritas organization and TMT. states that it may have occurred out of control.

Results

364 Turkish Cypriots and 174 Greek Cypriots lost their lives, and 8,667 Turkish Cypriots left their 103 villages. In the Milliyet newspaper dated December 22, 1985, the number of those who had to migrate is given as 25 thousand, and in the newspaper dated December 23, 1993, it is stated that the number is 30 thousand. John Terence O’Neill and Nicholas Rees also stated that 30,000 Turkish Cypriots had to emigrate. On 25 December, the Cyprus Turkish Forces Regiment was deployed to positions and warplanes of the Turkish Air Force started warning flights over Nicosia. Upon the events, the governments of the United Kingdom, Turkey and Greece convened on 30 December 1963 and the Green Line Agreement was signed, which determined the Green Line.

 

FİKRİKADİM

The ancient idea tries to provide the most accurate information to its readers in all the content it publishes.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.

Comment moderation is enabled. Your comment may take some time to appear.