People settled permanently on every continent except Antarctica. But we did not evolve in different parts of the world. We, everyone living today, all members of the Homo Sapiens species, can trace our lineage to Africa. So how did we spread all over the world?
There are some uncertainties about when modern people began to migrate from Africa, but this happened 100,000 to 75,000 years ago. People have managed to spread to such a wide geography because they are more versatile than the older human species and therefore more successful in adapting to different habitats in practices such as using tools, dressing, speaking, disciplined cooperation for hunting, firing and using shelter.
It is not known whether there is a single migration from Africa or several waves of migration. But people are likely to move slowly along the South Asian coast, perhaps one to two kilometers a year. Fossil remains show that they had reached Australia 50,000 years ago. This coincides with the last ice age when a large amount of water is trapped in the ice sheets. Falling sea levels have uncovered a land bridge between New Guinea and Australia, making this part of the journey easier. But how these people crossed the sea to reach New Guinea remains a mystery, since the remains of a marine vessel have not reached such an ancient history.
“Ex Africa semper aliquid novi. There is always something new coming out of Africa. ” – Elderly Plinius, Natural History, VIII (1st century AD)
Spreading Process of Homo Sapiens
Although older human species such as Neanderthals are living in Europe, modern humans may not have settled on this continent until 45,000 years ago, perhaps afraid of the cold climate.
The last continent reached was America, where no human species had settled before. The oldest evidence of human residence, found in a cave in Oregon, is dated to 14,300 years ago with the carbon dating method.
It is assumed that people are crossing the Americas through Northeast Siberia through a land bridge where Bering Strait is located today, but more and more evidence is found that the first colonists came by sea and settled on the Northwest coast for the first time.
The last settled areas of the world are the Pacific islands. Although the Polynesians only reached Samoa in 800 BC, their arrival in Hawaii and New Zealand is a thousand years ago. Polynesians traveled to long distances with double trunk canoes, where they loaded their families, livestock and plants.
In some cases, the islands they settled on had been visited by fishermen before, but some were so distant that it was impossible for Polynesian sailors to know if they could see the land again when sailing.
Universe and FİKRİKADİM in a Breath – Ian Crofton & Jeremy Black